Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching. -- 3rd ed. . Form and space are the critical means of architecture that comprise a design vocabulary that. Francis D. K. Ching Architecture Form, Space, and Order Wiley () (1) image: Courtesy of Francis D.K. Ching This book is printed on acid-free ∞ paper. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Ching, Frank, Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes .
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Architecture -- Composition, proportions, etc.
Architecture - Composition, proportions, etc. Espace Architecture Architecture -- Composition, proportion, etc. Space Architecture Summary "For more than thirty years, the illustrated Architecture: Form, Space, and Order has been the classic introduction to the basic vocabulary of architectural design.
The updated Third Edition features expanded sections on circulation, light, views, and site context, along with new considerations of environmental factors, building codes, and contemporary examples of form, space, and order. Using his trademark meticulous drawing, Professor Ching shows the relationship between fundamental elements of architecture through the ages and across cultural boundaries. By looking at these seminal ideas, Architecture: Form, Space, and Order encourages the reader to look critically at the built environment and promotes a more evocative understanding of architecture.
Contents 1. Primary elements 2. Form 3. Organization 5.
Circulation 6. Notes Previous edition: Includes bibliographical references and index. Technical Details System requirements for Windows: Windows 98SE or later: System requirements for Macintosh: Macintosh with Apple OSX version Dewey Number Related resource Publisher description at http: Other links Cover at http: Click here at http: Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?
These 27 locations in All: John and Alison Kearney Library. Open to the public ; NA Rockhampton Campus Library.
Curtin University Library. Open to the public ; Deakin University Library. Gold Coast Campus Library. Open to the public. Holmesglen Learning Commons. Open to the public Sirsi a; Ku-ring-gai Library. Open to the public Held. Not for ILL.
Liverpool City Library. MLC Libraries. Monash University Library. Moreland City Library. Gardens Point Campus Library. SAE - Byron Bay. May not be open to the public Held. May not be open to the public Lending restrictions apply. University of Queensland Library. University of Sydney Library. Barr Smith Library. University of Canberra Library.
University Library. University of the Sunshine Coast Library. University of Western Australia Library. UNSW Library. Victoria University Library. Penrith Campus Library. This single location in Australian Capital Territory: These 7 locations in New South Wales: I want to especially thank the following educators for their careful critique of the first edition: Rudolph Barton, Laurence A.
Clement, Jr. Steinfeld, Cheryl Wagner, James M. Wehler, and Robert L. In preparing this third edition, I am thankful to Michele Chiuini, Ahmeen Farooq, and Dexter Hulse for their thoughtful reviews of the second edition. While I have attempted to incorporate much of their wise counsel, I remain solely responsible for any deficiencies remaining in the text. To Debra, Emily, and Andrew, whose love of life it is ultimately the role of architecture to house. These conditions may be purely functional in nature, or they may also reflect in varying degrees the social, political, and economic climate.
In any case, it is assumed that the existing set of conditions—the problem—is less than satisfactory and that a new set of conditions—a solution—would be desirable. The act of creating architecture, then, is a problem-solving or design process. The initial phase of any design process is the recognition of a problematic condition and the decision to find a solution to it.
Design is above all a willful act, a purposeful endeavor. A designer must first document the existing conditions of a problem, define its context, and collect relevant data to be assimilated and analyzed.
This is the critical phase of the design process since the nature of a solution is inexorably related to how a problem is perceived, defined, and articulated. Piet Hein, the noted Danish poet and scientist, puts it this way: The shaping of the question is part of the answer. This book focuses, therefore, on broadening and enriching a vocabulary of design through the study of its essential elements and principles and the exploration of a wide array of solutions to architectural problems developed over the course of human history.
As an art, architecture is more than satisfying the purely functional requirements of a building program. Fundamentally, the physical manifestations of architecture accommodate human activity. However, the arrangement and ordering of forms and spaces also determine how architecture might promote endeavors, elicit responses, and communicate meaning. So while this study focuses on formal and spatial ideas, it is not intended to diminish the importance of the social, political, or economic aspects of architecture.
Form and space are presented not as ends in themselves but as means to solve a problem in response to conditions of function, purpose, and context—that is, architecturally. The analogy may be made that one must know and understand the alphabet before words can be formed and a vocabulary developed; one must understand the rules of grammar and syntax before sentences can be constructed; one must understand the principles of composition before essays, novels, and the like can be written.
Once these elements are understood, one can write poignantly or with force, call for peace or incite to riot, comment on trivia or speak with insight and meaning. In a similar way, it might be appropriate to be able to recognize the basic elements of form and space and understand how they can be manipulated and organized in the development of a design concept, before addressing the more vital issue of meaning in architecture.
All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Some Architectural order is created when the organization of parts makes visible may be readily apparent while others are more obscure to our intellect and their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole. When these senses. Some may convey images and meaning while others serve as singular nature of the whole, then a conceptual order exists—an order that qualifiers or modifiers of these messages. Villa Savoye, Poissy, east of Paris, —31, Le Corbusier This graphic analysis illustrates the way architecture embodies the harmonious integration of interacting and interrelated parts into a complex and unified whole.
Its inside order accommodates the multiple functions of a house, domestic scale, and partial mystery inherent in a sense of privacy. Its outside order expresses the unity of the idea of house at an easy scale appropriate to the green field it dominated and possibly to the city it will one day be part of.
If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body three-dimensional. A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension. Each element is first considered as a conceptual element, then as a visual element in the vocabulary of architectural design. While they do not actually exist, we nevertheless feel their presence.
We can sense a point at the meeting of two lines, a line marking the contour of a plane, a plane enclosing a volume, and the volume of an object that occupies space. When made visible to the eye on paper or in three-dimensional space, these elements become form with characteristics of substance, shape, size, color, and texture. As we experience these forms in our environment, we should be able to perceive in their structure the existence of the primary elements of point, line, plane, and volume.
Point A point extended becomes a Line with properties of: As the prime element in the vocabulary of form, a point can serve to mark: At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field.
When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy. Visual tension is created between the point and its field. To visibly mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form, as a column, obelisk, or tower.
Any such columnar element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. Other point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the: Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c.
The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius marks the center of this urban space. Michel, France, 13th century and later. The pyramidal composition culminates in a spire that serves to establish this fortified monastery as a specific place in the landscape. Although the points give this line finite length, the line can also be considered a segment of an infinitely longer path.
Two points further suggest an axis perpendicular to the line they describe and about which they are symmetrical. Because this axis may be infinite in length, it can be at times more dominant than the described line.
In both cases, however, the described line and the perpendicular axis are optically more dominant than the infinite number of lines that may pass through each of the individual points. Extended vertically, the two points define both a plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it. The Mall, Washington, D. Conceptually, a line has length, but no width or depth. Whereas a point is by nature static, a line, in describing the path of a point in motion, is capable of visually expressing direction, movement, and growth.
A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction. It can serve to: It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width. The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length—width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity. Even the simple repetition of like or similar elements, if continuous enough, can be regarded as a line.
This type of line has significant textural qualities. The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction. While a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space, a horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest.
An oblique line is a deviation from the vertical or horizontal. It may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising.
In either case, whether it is falling toward a point on the ground plane or rising to a place in the sky, it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state.
Place de la Concorde, Paris. The obelisk, which upright megalith, usually standing alone This cylindrical shaft commemorates marked the entrance to the Amon temple at Luxor, but sometimes aligned with others.
Louis Phillipe and installed in Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space. In the example illustrated to the left, four minaret towers outline a spatial field from which the dome of the Selim Mosque rises in splendor. Selim Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, A. In these three examples, linear elements: Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, —30, Robert Maillart.
The sculptured female figures stand as columnar supports for the Beams and girders have the bending strength to span the space entablature. Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century.
Linear columns and beams together form a three-dimensional framework for architectural space. An example is the axis, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged. Villa Aldobrandini, Italy, —, Giacomo Della Porta House 10, , John Hejduk Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another.
Buildings also can be linear in form, particularly when they consist of repetitive spaces organized along a circulation path. As illustrated here, linear building forms have the ability to enclose exterior spaces as well as adapt to the environmental conditions of a site.
These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams. How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction. A transparent spatial membrane can be stretched between them to acknowledge their visual relationship. The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey.
A series of parallel lines, through their repetitiveness, reinforces our perception of the plane they describe. As these lines extend themselves along the plane they describe, the implied plane becomes real and the original voids between the lines revert to being mere interruptions of the planar surface.
The diagrams illustrate the transformation of a row of round columns, initially supporting a portion of a wall, then evolving into square piers which are an integral part of the wall plane, and finally becoming pilasters—remnants of the original columns occurring as a relief along the surface of the wall. A colonnaded facade can be penetrated easily for entry, offers a degree of shelter from the elements, and forms a semi-transparent screen that unifies individual building forms behind it.
The Basilica, Vicenza, Italy. Andrea Palladio designed this two-story loggia in to wrap around an existing medieval structure. This addition not only buttressed the existing structure but also acted as a screen that disguised the irregularity of the original core and presented a Stoa of Attalus fronting the Agora in Athens uniform but elegant face to the Piazza del Signori. Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, c. Philibert, Tournus, France, — This view of the nave shows how rows of columns can provide a rhythmic measure of space.
Vertical and horizontal linear elements together can define a volume of space such as the solarium illustrated to the right. Note that the form of the volume is determined solely by the configuration of the linear elements. Conceptually, a plane has length and width, but no depth. Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of a plane.
It is determined by the contour of the line forming the edges of a plane. Because our perception of shape can be distorted by perspective foreshortening, we see the true shape of a plane only when we view it frontally. The supplementary properties of a plane—its surface color, pattern, and texture—affect its visual weight and stability.